Mughal Dynasty (Part - 2)
Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)
BIRTH:1618, Dohad( GJ), Son of Mumtaz and Shahjahan
Aurangzeb became victorious after the brutal war of succession among his brother Dara, Shuja and Murad.
Rebellions during his rule – Jat Peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in Bundelkhand.
The annexation of Marwar in AD 1658 led to a serious rift between Rajput and Mughals after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
Ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by him in AD 1675.
Mughal conquests reached territorial climax during his reign.
It stretched from Kashmir in North to Jinji in South, from the Hindukush in West to Chittagong in East.
He was called Darvesh or a Zinda Pir. He forbade Sati. Conquered Bijapur (AD 1686) and Golconda (AD 1687) and reimposed Jaziya in AD 1679.
He built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durrani at Aurangabad; Moti Masjid within Red Fort, Delhi; and the Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
Bahadur Shah I (1707-12)
Original name was Muazzam
Promote friendly relationship with Marathas and Rajputs
Jahandar Shah (1712-13)
He ascended the throne with the help of Zulfikar Khan (Wazir).
A Prostitute "LAL KUAR" dominated in his court
He lacked the ability and knowledge to rule independently.
His reign saw the emergence of the Sayyid Brothers (known as king maker).
1717-Issued Golden Farman to east India company for free trade
Farrukhsiyar executed Banda Bahadur ( A Sikh leader)
Muhammad Shah (1719-48)
Became the emperor with the help of the Saiyad Brothers
Nadir Shah invaded India and took away Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond.
Emergence of independent state in his period
Ahmed Shah (1748-54)
Ahmed Shah Abdali (General of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and the Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.
He worked under the guidance of Rajmata "Udam Bai"
Ahmed Shah occupied Delhi Later, Delhi was plundered by Marathas.
Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
Original NAME: Aligohar
Panipat War: (1761)
Buxar War (1764)
Treaty of Allahabad (1765)
Could not enter Delhi for 12 years.
1788: Gulam Kadir make him blind
Akbar II (1806-37)
Pensioner of East India Company.
Gave the title "Raja" to Ram Mohan Roy
Bahadur Shah II (1837-57)
Last Mughal Emperor who was made premier during the 1857 Revolt.
1862-death in Rangoon (Myanmar)
Causes behind the fall of Mughal Empire
Weak and incompetent successors
Wars of succession
Aurangzeb’s Deccan, religious and Rajput policies
Growth of Marathas and other regional powers
Foreign invasions of Nadir Shah (1739) and Abdali
Important Literature of Mughal Period
Abul Fazal (Ain-i-Akbari, Akbarnamah)
Mirza Md Qasim (Alamgirnama)