Mughal Dynasty (Part - 1)
Babur (AD 1526-1530)
BIRTH:1483 Fargana(Afganistan) Father-Umer sheikh Mirja, Mother-Kutlug nigar( Mangol)
Founder of Mughal empire, who introduced gunpowder in India
defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (AD 1526)
Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at Battle of Khanwa (AD 1527)
Medini Rai of Chanderi at Battle of Chanderi (AD 1528)
Mahmud Lodi at Battle of Ghagra (AD 1529) (Last war of the Babur)
He wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi (Autobiography of Babur) in the Turkish language.
Babur declared Jehad and adopted the title, Ghazi(After the Khanva War)
According to Tuzuk-i-Baburi, Babur Died in 1530 in Lahore and buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). Later his body was taken to Afghanistan (Kabul).
Humayun (AD 1530-1556)
Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.
Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power. He fought two battles with Humayun – Battle of Chausa (AD 1539) and another Battle of Kannauj (AD 1540) culminating in Humayun’s defeat
Humayun passed 15 years in exile; again invaded India in 1555 with the help of his officer Bairam Khan.
Died in AD 1556 due to a fall from his library building’s stairs
Gulbadan Begum, Humayun’s half-sister wrote Humayun-nama.
After battle of Chausa Sher khan adapted a title, SHER SHAH SURI
Biography of Humayun-HUMAYUNAMA
Akbar (AD 1556-1605)
Mother-Hamida Bano Began
Coronated at the young age of 14 by Bairam Khan
Defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (AD 1556) with the help of Bairam Khan Conquered Malwa (AD 1561) defeating Baz Bahadur followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati), Chittor (AD 1568), Ranthambhor and Kalinjar (AD 1569), Gujarat (AD 1572), Mewar (Battle of Haldighati, AD 1576 Akbar and Rana Pratap), Kashmir (AD 1586), Sindh (AD 1593) and Asirgarh (AD 1603).
Buland Darwaza was constructed at Fatehpur Sikri after victory over Gujarat in AD 1572.
Married to Harkha Bai, daughter of Rajput ruler Bharmal
Ralph Fitch (in AD 1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s court.
Abolished Jaziyah (AD 1564)
Believed in Sulh-i-Kul (peace to all), built Ibadat Khana (Hall of prayer) at Fetehpur Sikri; issued ‘Degree of Infallibility (AD 1579); formulated religious oder Din-i-Ilahi (AD 1582). Birbal was the first to embrace it.
Land revenue system was called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti System measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rent; and introduced Mansabdari System (holder of rank) to organise nobility and army.
The Navratnas included Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khana-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh and Fakir Aziao-Din.
Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)
Executed the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev.
Greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in AD 1622.
Married Mehr-un-Nisa in AD 1611 and conferred the title of Nurjahan on her; He established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
Famous painters in his court-Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur and Bishandas.
Shahjahan (AD 1628-1658)
Annexed Ahmadnagar while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
Secured Kandahar (AD 1639).
Two Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier and an Italian adventurer Manucci visited his court.
Built Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi. His reign is considered the Golden Age of the Mughal empire.